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James Joyce, Dubliners


All page references to the text of Dubliners are to the following edition:
Joyce, James. Dubliners. 1914. Introd. Edna O'Brien. New York: Signet/NAL, 1991. Print.


"The Sisters"

Setting
As with all of the stories, Dublin remains the home. Here, we see a few specific places: the streets (in the beginning and in the death notice scene); the young protagonist's home (with, like the other young protagonists of the first three stories, not a mother or father); and Fr. Flynn's last abode, now presided over by his two sisters. It is early in the summer; in fact, it is 1 July 1895: in the Catholic faith, the Feast of the Most Precious Blood--blood that here in this story proves corrosive to Fr. Flynn and that the young boy rejects.

Characters
Young Male Protagonist - the young boy who serves as semi-narrator, in Hugh Kenner's "Uncle Charles" manner;

Fr. Flynn - a defrocked priest who dies in the story; he was a great friend to the young male protagonist and guided him in his studies, especially of intricate theological questions; he had dropped a chalice and it cracked, finally having what seems a nervous breakdown (his "crack"), the duties of the priesthood being, as his sister put it, "too much for him"; he becomes a surrogate father to the young protagonist. We never see Fr. Flynn alive except through the young protagonist's dreams--dreams that may take him away from a church that could trap him.

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Eliza - one of Fr. Flynn's "sisters" in the story; she actually replaces him, taking over his role as the head of the family (if indeed he was the patriarch since he lost his "father" title); she sits in state at the wake and even offers her visitors a corrupted version of the Eucharist as snacks.

Nannie - Fr. Flynn's other sister; she seems in deteriorating [[#|health]], probably suffering, from the description, from what we now call [[#|osteoporosis]]; in some ways, she even appears like an old nannie goat.

Aunt & Uncle - the relations with whom the young protagonist lives; we only see the uncle in the scene with Mr. Cotter, seeming to agree with Cotter that the young boy needs to be more manly; the aunt makes a brief appearance in that scene but mainly appears as she takes the young protagonist to Fr. Flynn's wake.

Old Cotter - the tired, old, red-nosed imbecile, according to the young protagonist; Cotter has an opinion about everything, it seems, and little knowledge about anything.

Plot Overview
Plot, in its usual sense, seems absent here. To conjure up a plot, when once it is written, it appears rather lackluster; yet, much happens in the story. That "much," though, only becomes totally meaningful after we read the other stories, see the connections. The first story remains, read in a vacuum or as the beginning, what Tindall calls a "riddle," one in which "[N]othing becomes quite clear" (13). Simply, a young boy waits for a priest to die; the priest, who has suffered three strokes due to the duties of the priesthood being too much for him, dies; the young boy attends the wake. Sounds like nothing, might be nothing, might be something (with a nod and a wink to Seinfeld).

Deadly Sin[s]
Strangely, this one contains no overt nature of one of the seven deadly sins. As the opening chords of what Hugh Kenner calls this "multi-faceted novel," that lack of a deadly sin may seem odd; they do, after all, appear in some form or another in nearly all of the other stories. Yet, in many ways, it seems in perfect keeping with this first story of childhood: the young protagonist remains innocent to a large extent, only learning as the story progresses of Fr. Flynn's fate and, perhaps, the fate that awaits him should he remain in Dublin. Anger surfaces in the young boy when Mr. Cotter opines about the late priest and perhaps pride in his refusal of the crackers and wine at the wake (with no Finnegan in sight). The former, though, seems deserves; the latter, perhaps the signal that this young boy, unlike Fr. Flynn, still has hope.

Virtue[s]
Even more strangely, we can see hope in this story. No hope exists for Fr. Flynn, but by his refusal of communion the young protagonist seems to offer hope that he will not be trapped, that he has, at least at his young age, a chance of escape. Love also plays a role. Fr. Flynn may have had a great wish for the boy, and we can always hope that his wish was not a vocation for the boy but the ability to move beyond the constricting forces at work in Dublin. And that caritas also shows in the young protagonist's love of words, evident throughout the story: he has no rheuma like Eliza, but he may have the true pneuma of the artist if he only can get away.

Major Motifs
As the opening story, this one itself does not contain any motifs per se--that is, until we view in light of the rest of the collection. Then, we begin to see those trapped bodies,​ the broken chalice of this story becoming the broken Eucharist and religion of the later stories (the latter seem most plainly in "Grace" and "Clay"). The main motif here seems to be the annunciation of a new type: the trapped person, often unaware of the cage until that epiphanic moment, which some of the characters have and some do not. We will see the windows and reveries or dreams (those haunting dreams of possibility, and of failure as we read on) appear throughout the book: usually, they end in nightmare one way or the other, either for the character[s] or for us as readers.

Symbols
In this story, all of the symbols center around the Eucharist. First, we get the date of Fr. Flynn's death--on the feast of the Most Precious Blood. Second, we see a corrupt re-enactment of the Eucharist as the young protagonist eats while Cotter offers his corrupt opinions, the boy's aunt offering mutton (old, dead sheep, not like the living lamb of the Eucharist) from the "safe," a semi-tabernacle for storage, just as the sisters will offer another version at the wake. Third, we get the snuff, "High Toast," recalling the actual bread of the Eucharist. Fourth, we get the crackers and wine at the wake, this time served by Eliza and Nannie, the two ostensible "sisters" of the story. In each instance, somehow the Eucharist does not attain its proper place, something somehow gone wrong.

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We also have the confessional in the young boy's dream and the Eucharist in the scene with the young protagonist preparing the snuff for Fr. Flynn. As symbols, these two show the changing of the roles of priest and acolyte, the one becoming the other, assuming the other's role. Again, as with the Eucharist, something somehow has gone wrong, the priest no longer able to absolve, the boy incapable at this point in the story. Yet, at the end, we may see the boy's refusal of the Eucharist at the wake as his movement into absolution--this time, though, absolving himself, giving himself the permission to escape.

Analysis
"The Sisters" sounds the keynote for the rest of the stories, providing a definitive model for the first three stories but also setting the stage for all the stories to come. The protagonists and the plots may change slightly, the names may change, but the gist remains: Dubliners all trapped by church, state, or family--or some combination thereof. We see in the story how simple elements build to take on symbolic resonances, becoming recurring nightmares for the characters. At his young age, it remains unclear if the young boy actually experiences any epiphany here but, looking back from the last lines of "The Dead," as readers we can then recognise all of the essential elements that will also constrict around Gabriel Conroy. This story offers some hope, however, though not for Fr. Flynn. Yet, perhaps it does. Perhaps Fr. Flynn's hope, his teaching of the intricacies of the Catholic canon, actually serve to warn the young protagonist: perhaps that warning away from the horror of Dublin was Fr. Flynn's hope for the young boy. Perhaps the hope resides in the young protagonist's refusal of the Eucharist at the wake--his non serviam predating Stephen's in Portrait. Perhaps we see in that refusal the refusal to become Lenehan, Mr. Doran, Duffy, or Gabriel: perhaps we see a Dubliner with a chance still, a chance to become free of the strictures that cripple so many others.

Connections w/ other Stories
One wonders if Fr. Flynn is the same priest who once occupied the house in "Araby." Though it remains uncertain, the connection definitely jumps to mind once the reader becomes attuned to the threads running throughout all of the stories. Though not named, it seems Old Cotter would melt easily into the group bemoaning Ireland's fate in "Ivy Day in the Committee Room." The young protagonist might very well serve as the older protagonists later in the book. Since this story opens with a window and a death, it proves highly congenial to see this young boy as Gabriel Conroy in "The Dead," staring out the window at the end of that story with the snow paralyzing all the living and the dead.

The Word
In "The Sisters," the word appears explicitly from the first page--"paralysis." We see that word perform its "deadly work" there and continue to perform throughout the rest of the book. We also see on that opening page how words--like paralysis, gnomon, and simony--fascinate the young protagonist, alerting us as readers to pay attention to them here in this story and in the whole book. (I nearly wrote as the book moves forward, but one can never be sure if Dubliners, or the Dubliners who populate it, moves forward, or if it actually moves at all.) Yet, this opening salvo of Joyce's battle to undo the constricting bands of church, state and family with silence, exile and cunning demonstrate what an important role the word will play in the war. The words build and destroy; they burn and freeze: Always, though, the words move with a grace that beckons us into the stories, into the book. The true "grace" here arrives with the words--words that foretell all that will come in the Joycean canon.

Works Consulted
Gifford, Don. Notes for Joyce: Dubliners and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1967. Print.
Kenner, Hugh. Dublin's Joyce. Boston: Beacon Press,1962. Print.
---. Joyce's Voices. Berkeley: U of California Press, 1979. Print.
Tindall, William York. A Reader's Guide to James Joyce. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1959. Print.
[TG]





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“An Encounter”



Setting


Characters

Plot Overview


Deadly Sin[s]


Virtue[s]


Major Motifs


Symbols


Analysis
dubliners and its entirety revolves around the idea of a trapped and corrupt society, yet the humbleness and comforts of home, but above all the need to break free. The narrator is the adventurer in all of us. The other characters are the people of Dublin and as much as he despises or shies away from them he knows there is still a great love for them at heart. The narrator is young Dublin. A Dublin full of hope and promise much like the boy in “The Sisters” he is yet able to make decisions free from the pressures of life in Dublin. As the book progresses though we see that hope in the main character fade until finally it fades into “The Dead”. So when we come to the end of the story we see it is almost a preview to the rest of the book, you even may recognize some scenery described later in the book. Is Mahoney a reference to Dublin and the narrator its people or does it represent the remorsefulness every character has for his actions in this story and others. There is no story in which a character has everything together but I think this story speaks of regrets and remind so us to repent something to keep in mind through the whole book. On the less symbolic side of the spectrum we see that the narratordoes not find satisfaction in school or out in the world. His immaturity doesnrt fail to show when he backs down from the adventure that he do sought and maybe wishes for somethin more familiar. Similar to other characters in the story, he is trapped and conformed by Dublin and his desire to be there ,conscious or not, he can not release himself from the fears and insecurities instilled in him.

Connections w/ other Stories


The Word


Works Consulted




"Araby"

Setting
The central setting of “Araby” is in Dublin as all of the Stories are. It is in the beginning of winter where days are short. The Story begins on North Richmond Street where the narrator describes the uninhabited house at the dead end of the street and the other houses’ calm faces. It is also on this street where the narrator and his friend Mangan plays and hides from Mangan’s sister whom the narrator likes. We also see specific places such as the narrator’s home who lives with his aunt and uncle, the market which the narrator goes to with his aunt to carry some of the parcels, the narrator’s school which he can not concentrate at because of his confused feelings for Mangan’s sister, and also the bazaar that the narrator arrives at just before it closes and is unsuccfesful at buying Mangan’s sister something.

Characters
Narrator- The young boy who is the protagonist of the story and lives with his aunt and uncle on North Richmond Street. He has a big crush on his friend Mangan’s sister and offers to buy her something at the bazaar because she cannot attend. At the end of the story he is upset because he did not get to buy Mangan’s sister anything and loses hope on love.

Mangan- The narrator’s friend who loves to play throughout the streets and hides when his sister calls for him to come in for tea.

Mangan’s Sister- Girl whom the narrator has a big crush on and offers to buy something at the bazaar. She could not attend the bazaar because she had a retreat at her school.

Narrator’s Aunt- The narrator’s guardian whom he lives with and goes marketing with on Saturday evenings.

Narrator’s Uncle- Causes the narrator to be late and almost miss the bazaar because he “forgot” and comes home late and drunk. The narrator’s uncle is not the nicest person and is rude when the narrator reminds him that he wants to go to the bazaar.

Mrs. Mercer- Old garrulous woman who collects used stamps for a religious purpose. She is also a pawnbroker’s widow and did not like to be out late because night air was bad for her.

Plot Overview
"Araby" is about a young boy in the adolescence of his life who likes his friend Mangan’s sister. According to Epifanio San Juan, Jr. “The plot of “Araby” is a dynamic and complex one, consisting of a change I the fortune of the protagonist form a passionate “lover” sensitive and obsessed with heroic possibilities, to a disappointed visitor of a bazaar.”(55) In the beginning he has an innocent crush on her. He is infatuated by her beauty. The problem is that the narrator is too scared and nervous to talk to her. Every morning the narrator looks for her out of his parlor window and waits for her to leave the house and then runs outside to get ahead of her. The narrator has confused feelings but he also has hope for love and a future. Thoughts of Mangan’s sister always come to his mind whether he is at the market with his aunt or even praying. When Mangan’s sister finally talks to him the narrator becomes more confident and offers to buy her something at the bazaar because she could not attend. With the possibility and hope of the narrator obtaining love he cannot wait until the day the bazaar comes so he can impress Mangan’s sister. He cannot sleep or concentrate in school and the only thing that he is worried about is buying Mangan’s sister something. However the narrator’s hope for love is lost when he is not able to buy Mangan’s sister something at the bazaar. He arrives just before the bazaar closes and when all the lights shut off he is angered and hopeless on love with Mangan's sister. He gives up on the thought of loving her and thinks because he was not able to buy her something he does not have a chance with her.
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Deadly Sin[s]
The most evident deadly sin seen here is lust. The narrator lusts after Mangan’s sister and has confused feelings about her. He always kept her “brown figure” in his eyes. He also describes how the light caught the white curve of her neck, lit up her hair, her hand, and one side of her dress that caught the border of her petticoat. Not only does the narrator lust after Mangan’s sister he is infatuated by her. He is nervous and confused when she talks to him and can not concentrate in school when he thinks about how happy she will be when he buys her something from the bazaar. The narrator experiences typical puppy love with Mangan’s sister. Another deadly sin that appears in “Araby” is wrath. At the end of the story the narrator is angry and upset that he arrived to the bazaar late and did not get to buy Mangan’s sister anything. The chance he has at impressing Mangan’s sister is gone which angers him. Epifanio San Juan states, "The nature of the boy's response provides a key to our understanding of why the experience in the bazaar should be an inevitable conclusion and the last statement a surprising but probable generalization of the boy's ordeal for himself."(56) The narrator is beyond angry because he thinks his chance at love and a better life outside of Dublin is gone.

Virtue[s]
A virtue that is seen throughout “Araby” is hope. The narrator has hope for love and a good future in the beginning of the story. When Mangan’s sister talks to him he gains even more hope and tries to impress her by offering to buy her something at the bazaar. However all hope for love is lost for the narrator when he arrives at the bazaar just before it closes and is unsuccessful at buying Mangan’s sister something.

Major Motifs
A popular motif that is seen through out many of the stories in “Dubliners” is the desire to escape life in Dublin. The narrator is a young boy but still have hopes of escaping life in Dublin. While his friends continue to play outside and not really have a care in the world the narrator thinks of a better future and has hope for love in his life. His attitude has literally grown overnight with him talking to Mangan’s sister. First he is playing with Mangan all night and having fun and then he is trying to impress Mangan’s sister and can not get her out of his mind. Another motif evident here is epiphany. At the end when the narrator feels unwanted by the woman working at the last stall he finally realizes that his dreams of love are hopeless and the reality of his life in Dublin. When the lights shut off he finally comes to the conclusion that his fantasies of having love will not happen.

Symbols
In this story most of the symbols center around the narrator’s hope for love. A window is a symbol in this story that is also found as symbols throughout the book. Everyday the narrator looks out his parlor window for the appearance of Mangan’s sister. Another big symbol in this story is the darkness at the end when the bazaar closes. This darkness symbolizes the narrator loosing hope on love and a better future.
darkness.jpg As the lights shut off in the bazaar the narrator realizes that his hope for love is gone and becomes angry.


Analysis
In “Araby” the idea and possibility of love was present but was given up on. The narrator felt that there was chance at love after talking to Mangan’s sister. He wanted to buy her something at the bazaar to impress her. He looked only at materialistic means and not at the fact that love could be seen without giving gifts. When his plan of buying Mangan’s sister something did not work he gave up on the idea of love. In a matter of seconds with the lights shutting off, the narrator went from loving to angry. He felt the possibility of having a good future outside of dublin was gone.

Connections w/ other Stories
“Araby” has many connections with the other stories in “Dubliners”. The first three stories all have evident connections. The narrators are all unnamed young males, who do not have mothers or fathers, and live with their aunts and uncles. “Araby” also connects with “The Sisters” when it comes to the priest. The narrator in “Araby” mentions that a charitable priest was the former tenant of his house and perhaps this priest was Father Flynn from “The Sisters”. Another connection the two stories share is the mentioning of a chalice. In “The Sisters” Father Flynn had dropped the chalice, which was one of the worst things a priest could do. In “Araby” the narrator states, “I imagined that I bore my chalice safely through a throng of foes.” The narrator mentioning this is ironic to the fact that Father Flynn was a priest and dropped his chalice.

The Word
The word is seen throughout “Araby” in many forms. In the beginning of the story the narrator describes the backyard of having a “Central” apple tree and small straggling bushes. This can be seen as an image of the Garden of Eden. The narrator also had strange prayers and praise throughout the story in which Mangan’s sister came to his mind. Mrs. Mercer was also a very religious woman who collected stamps for some religious purpose.

Works Consulted
San Juan, Epifanio. James Joyce and the Craft of Fiction: An Interpretation of Dubliners. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1972.
[LC]

“Eveline”





Setting
The story starts off in late afternoon, progressing into evening, with Eveline sitting in the window of her home in Dublin. Eveline ends with Eveline standing on the dock in North Wall, and Frank sailing off towards Buenos Ayres.

Characters
Eveline - The protagonist of the story. She was torn between making the decision of staying home and taking care of her family and house (fulfilling her promise to her dead mother), or going away to Buenos Ayres to marry her lover, Frank, and start a fresh and happy life with him. At home she had to deal with her fathers violence, having to give her wages from work to him, housework, and two young children, all equaling to a hard life. Eveline felt Frank was her means of escape from unhappiness at home. She never went to Buenos Ayres with him though, and instead gives in to the typical life of a woman in this time period in Ireland, (taking care of her childhood home).

Frank - The narrator states he is a kind, manly, and openhearted sailor. He is Eveline’s lover and wants to take her to Buenos Ayres and marry her. He represents a new beginning for Eveline, and a chance for happiness.

Eveline’s Father - A sickly man that drinks. His relationship with his daughter, Eveline, is not strong one can assume, because he makes her give all her earnings to him, and he is violent and disrespectful towards her. He does not like her lover, Frank, and they got into a quarrel, which led to him forbidding Eveline from seeing him anymore. In this story he represents an oppressor, (to Eveline).

Harry - Eveline's brother who is in the church decorating business in the country.

Ernest - Eveline's brother that is dead.

Plot Overview
Eveline is a story about a young lady that has had to live with her father’s violence and disrespect and taking care of the house all her life. She is unhappy living that way but deals with it because when her mother was on her deathbed she made Eveline promise to take care of the home. Her lover Frank wanted to take her away, by boat, to Buenos Ayres to marry her and start a new life. In the end Eveline could not bring herself to leave and is left standing on the dock, helpless and expressionless, as Frank sailed away.

Deadly Sin[s]
One of the deadly sins is not clearly evident in this story, however, if the reader looks closely at the father, they can see that he is guilty of wrath. His violence towards Harry, Ernest, and Eveline is evidence that he has anger: even thought it was caused by drinking, which still is not an excuse because a person is responsible for their actions, and if he drinks, he is responsible for the consequences.

Virtue[s]
“Escape!/ She must escape! Frank would save her. He would give her life, perhaps love, too. But she wanted to live. Why should she be unhappy? She had a right to happiness”. The virtue in this story is hope. Eveline hopes that through Frank, she can live a happy life. By going to live with Frank, she can escape the unhappy life of household duties at home with her father.

Major Motifs
One motif that is evident in this story the want to escape societies way of life. Eveline wants to escape the typical lifestyle of women in this time period, which is to do housework and heed the man of the house. During the 19th century, the attitude towards women was that they are less than men. This lifestyle was not fulfilling to Eveline and she saw Frank as her out, just as the boy in “The Sisters” did not want to follow in Father Flynn’s footsteps, or the two boys in “An Encounter” skip a regular school day to seek adventure, or even Mr. Doran who wants to escape the situation of marrying Polly despite everybody’s opinion around him. Another motif is the windows Eveline was looking out of. Eveline looking out the window shows her reflecting on her life, and the happier life she really wants.

Symbols
One symbol the reader first sees on the first page is the new red houses. This symbolizes a new beginning, which Eveline wants to have. The root word of red is ‘re’ which means to anew. It shows that Eveline wants to start a new beginning.

Analysis
"Eveline is the first story with a main character thats a woman in "Dubliners".It is evident that Eveline was trapped by the state in this story. She was trapped by societies normality of women doing household work, which she had to do. When she had an epiphany that she wanted to move with Frank and leave her old unhappy life at home, that was her hoping to break away from the normal routine of women in that time. She is also trapped by family because of the expectations for her to stay home and take care of her house and family.

Connections w/ other Stories
“Eveline” connects with “Boarding House” because in both stories the reader sees the woman doing cynical housework. It also connects with Father Flynn in “The Sisters”. In the beginning of the story, Eveline caught sight of the yellowing picture of a priest: the same yellowing picture described in “The Sisters”. Also, in both "Counterprts" and "Eveline", we see the effects of alchol. Both stories tell of a male character that drinks, and as a result, is violent to those around him. In both stories, a blacktorn, which is an Irish walking stick, is used to beat their children.



external image CS91PBSa.jpg- A blackthorn stick



The Word
The word “life” in this story is very important. Eveline states that to leave with Frank, she would have a chance to live. To live to Eveline means to be happy, and staying home, she cannot fulfill happiness due to her household duties and her father. In essence, when she decided not to leave with Frank, she chose not to live: not in the literal since, but figuratively. The reader can assume she is described as a helpless animal because Frank was her way of escaping, and now she would be bound to an unhappy and unfulfilling life. All hope was now gone from her of being happy so in a way she was indeed helpless.

Works Consulted
Kenner, Hugh. Dublin’s Choice: Chapter 5 Dubliners. Bloomington: Indiana, UP 1956. Print.
CC
"After the Race"

Setting
"After The Race" begins on Naas Road as cars come into Dublin racing (Naas Road is a road in Dublin and it is also in the outskirts of Dublin). Then the cars drove down Dame Street to a party in Segouin's hotel. THen later the characters went to the American's yacht.

Characters
Charles Segouin - was rich Frenchman and the owner of the racing car in the beginning of the story. He was cousins with Andre Riviere. Segouin wants to start a motor establishment in Paris.

Andre Riviere - was a French-Canadian electrician. Riviere was to be appointed manager of Segouin's establishment.

Villona - was Hungarian, very poor, and a pianist.

Jimmy Doyle - was a neatly groomed 26 year old Irishmen. His father made his money as a butcher in Kingstown and by opening shops in Dublin. Doyle was sent to England to attend a big Catholic college ,by his father, but his his father sent him to Dublin University to study law. Then he was sent to Cambridge where he met Segouin and Villona.

Routh - He was a Englishmen that also attend Cambridge and was friends Segouin.

Farley - He was a wealthy American.

Plot Overview
Segouin had a party at his hotel and Andre Riviere, Villona, Jimmy Doyle, Routh, and Farley attened the party. During the party Jimmy and Routh got into an argument, but Segouin stops the altercation. When Farley arrived, they all left the hotel and went to Farley's yacht. When they arrived they was drinking, dancing, singing, and playing games except for Villona because he went to play the piano for everyone. Farley and Jimmy lost the most money.

Deadly Sin[s]
In "After the Race" there was only one deadly sin in the story and it was anger. Anger was when Jimmy and Routh had a little argument. During the story the characters was just having fun and partying.

Virtue[s]
In "After the Race" there is the virtue of hope. Jimmy's father tried to determine Jimmy's fate. Jimmy's fathers sent him to two good colleges so he can get a good education, but Jimmy does not take his studying seriously (Joyce 38). So his father sent him to Cambridge so Jimmy to see a little life. "Jimmy's adolescence has unnaturally prolonged, for the father still governs: "His father, remonstratve, but covertly proud of the excess, had paid his bills and brought him home." (Epifanio San Juan 81)

Major Motifs
In this story there was no motifs words or phrases that kept showing up. The major motifs that kept coming up was race or the nationalities of the characters. In the story James Joyce would recognize the characters by their nationality. "They drank Ireland, England, France, Hungary, the United States of America" (Joyce 43). James Joyce did not recognize the characters by their name, but instead he substituted their names for their "race".

Symbols
Motor cars in the early 1900's were considered a luxury item as it was a symbol of wealth. Cars was not popular in the early 1900s and only the wealthy could afford cars.

Analysis
"The Race" in "After the Race" does not only refers to the automobile race in the beginning, but also all the races or nationalities in the story. There was no Irish drivers so the Irish fans had to career for the French drivers, this was a way that James Joyce insults Dublin in this story.

Connections w/ other Stories
This story connects with "The Boarding House". In this story Jimmy's father was a butcher and in "The Boarding House" Mrs.Mooney was the daughter of a butcher. This story does not really connect with other stories because this was the only story that had different nationalities.
The Word
In this story there was no real connect to the word. The only connect to the word was when Jimmy Doyle went to a big Catholic college for a short period of time.

Works Consulted
Epifanio San Juan, Jr. James Joyce and the Craft of Fiction: After the Race. Cranbury, New Jersey. 1972
DR

Two Gallants

Setting
The story takes place in the streets of Dublin. The two protagonists are first encountered in a walk down the Hill of Rutland Square, they make their way onto Stephen’s Green, and cross the road to Hume Street to meet the young woman. From there Lenehan walks down Grafton Street and then stopped to eat at a poor-looking shop with the words Refreshment Bar printed in white letters on the window. In the end Lenehan follows the couple, Corley and his girl, to her house and waits outside in Baggot Street. The story begins in a warm Sunday evening of August.

Characters
John Corley – The scheming friend of Lenehan. He is a large, oily-man, who is always sweating, and only speaks about himself. He walks with the manner of a policeman, “with hands to his sides, holding himself erect and swaying his head from side to side (D 47),” because he is the son of an inspector of police. Corley was a cheater, and would use girls to obtain either money or sex. He was a young man who tricked others, and gets the easy way out instead of having a noble job to maintain him economically stable.

Lenehan – He is squat, ruddy and dressed like a young man although his face and body seem older. He is the friend of Corley and he is the weaker companion. He is not at the same level as Corley, as seen in the first paragraphs of the story, where Lenehan is pushed off the side walk into the road and he was walking between the road and sidewalk because Corley had most of the space in the sidewalk. He is also the who listens to Corley with nothing to say but “That takes the biscuit.” Lenehan is very dependent of Corley and is a young man in his thirties, and he has no direction in life. Without Corley he does not know what to do; he continues to walk and laments his aimlessness in life.

Plot Overview
The plot of the story “Two Gallants” is very simple; it is about two young men who are wondering around the streets of Dublin talking about girls and money. They speak of a plan that one of them has, Corley, to use a girl he is dating, by getting her to take money away from her employers house. Corley and the young woman take off on a date while Lenehan is left behind alone; and finds out he does not know what to do without Corley there and decides to walk around and eat as he contemplates his life. Afterwards he meets up with Corley outside the young woman’s house to see if he had convinced the girl to take the money. The girl goes in and out the house and Corley then walks away, Lenehan follows him and Corley then shows him a coin in his hand.

Deadly Sin[s]
The deadly sins that can be viewed in this story are greed, lust and sloth. Corley has greed, which is to have money with no care of how he gets it. He has set out to trick women into getting him money; at the same time lust plays a role because Corley could be offering himself as a male prostitute to the women and thus expecting a reward back as David Pierce describes in his book Reading Joyce. However this is never clear in the story, Corley only leads Lenehan to believe this. Lust is also seen in the manner that Corley goes from girl to girl, trying to get something from them; as he described to Lenehan that he would get the girls something but never got back anything, when all he wanted was sex. Sloth is seen in both of these young men, they are both lazy enough that they do not try to go find a true job and do something noble out of their lives. Instead they live off little jobs, and the money they can get from others. Lenehan for incase dreams of being able to find the right woman for him and having a descent job, but however he does nothing to achieve this dreams but follow around Corley and be satisfy with what he has.

Virtue[s]
The only virtue that is found in “Two Gallants” is the virtue of hope. While Lenehan is eating and thinking about his life, he begins to imagine how it would be to have a good girl by his side, which could take him out of his misery. Even if up to that day he had done nothing useful with his life and had no women, he still had a little hope left. After eating he felt better and less weary, his spirit was up . He even felt like he "might yet be able to settle down in some snug corner across some good simple-minded girl with a little of the ready (D 55)." This little hope is the only hope that the is seen in the story and relates back to all humans, we have little hope of ever being truly happy, specially the stories in Dubliners there is a little hope that is in the battle of being lost.

Major Motifs
There are two major motifs that run throughout this story, which are betrayal and epiphany. Betrayal is in this story from the first time that Corley tells Lenehan about his plan with the "slavey." Lenehan begins to wonder if Corley would betray him. As Lenehan walks around the streets and waits for Corley to return he worries and wonders if Corley would betray him, just like Corley doubts of Lenehan. The way they make there money is by the form of betrayal, they betray the girls and get money out of them. Betrayal is also seen in "The Boarding House" were Mrs. Mooney traps Mr.Doran into marriage, or in "The Dead" Gabriel feels betrayed by his wife's emotions in the end. Just like many characters in the stories of Dubliners, Lenehan encounters an epiphany which was the coin on Corley's hand and the fact that he had done it, he had taken the money and that for now that was what he had to worry about he had to be happy about that moment and not think about how he is going to do it the next day, because that coin means everything to him, they can now feed themselves of these girls that are willing to give them money.

Symbols
A symbol that is present in this story is the harp that Lenehan and Corley hear during their walk. The harp is over all a symbol of Ireland and in this story the way the harpist played the wires was "heedless", the harp was also heedless, and the song that was being played was Silent O Moyle a slow sad melody that put the mood down. The Harp can be seen as Lenehan because of the lack of attention he has over himself and his life, and the sad melody his life that is going by fast without it being a good life. Food is also another symbol, the meal that Lenehan has shows how poor he is, all he can afford is a plate of peas and a beer. The food also symbolize the lack of prosperity in his life and the colors of the flag of Ireland, the peas are green and the ginger beer is orange. To show that the Irish are many times in bad situations, and are trapped in their own self-absorbed lives.

Analysis
The title of the story "Two Gallants" is very ironic. In the story neither of the men are close to fine gentleman. Instead they are liars and use maids to get money from their employers. Both of the men are instead the whole opposite of what a gallant is, but however both of them wish they could be gallants. Corley is the one with the stronger will and the one who goes out to get the girls and money. Meanwhile Lenehan is the one who waits around for Corley, however he is as guilty because he is in the betrayal. Lenehan has a guiltier conscious than Corley and reflects on what his life consist on. He is but a poor man on the edge of poverty, with no women, and with a future that is aimless he has nothing going for himself. He would wish he could be in the working class man and have a simple girl, but he does not do anything to get there, instead lets Corley go get the girls and get the money. That why any pity that the reader my feel for him in the beginning vanishes, because of his lack of work, and his venality. He is also in a paralysis were he cannot do anything else but what he is doing, he is embittered and a self pitying Dubliner. "Two Gallants" is a story exploitation and manipulation, which Lenehan, Corley and the young woman all participate in with self-serving minds. They all envy each other and that is why they keep close because they need to know what each one is gaining, that is why Corley and Lenehan do not separate, they want to know who is doing what that is better than them. This story shows what the street life of Ireland can be like.

Connections w/ other Stories
The two men in the story "Two Gallants" can be the same two boys that skipped in "An Encounter." Lenehan and Corley are the grown man who made nothing out of there lives, are the result of the two boys who skipped, and also decided to walk around aimlessly. The story also connect to "The Boarding house because in "Two Gallants" there are two male predators in search of a woman that can get them money; just like in the "The Boarding House" the mother and daughter are the two female predators that hunted down Mr. Doran and trapped him into marriage with Polly, because of his good status. This two characters are also seen in Ulysses, however each in reduced circumstances. The young woman in "Two Gallants" shows the defiance that Eveline was missing in the story "Eveline," the young woman was on to Corley's little tricks and new what she was getting into but she followed along, unlike Eveline. To show a connection the young woman is dressed in the image of Frank and the sailors, as a sailor girl, to show she is as daring as Frank.

The Word
The word in this story is found in the end of the story and it is "disciple." Corley stopped in front of Lenehan and "Then with a grave gesture he extended a hand towards the light and, smiling, opened it slowly to the gaze of his disciple (D 57)." Here we can see that Corley is like Jesus and Lenehan one of his disciples and the coin in his hand is his salvation. It is like if the coin in his hand was the bread and body of God that must be taken by us, because he gave his body for our salvation. Once again a play on what the Eucharist is, is shown in the story, the Eucharist is broke and not used properly. Money is what gives us life and satisfaction to many, and many prefer the money than the body of Jesus, we would take the coin instead of the bread. Lenehan is the disciple the faithful follower of Corley, because he has gotten money for them, which means he can now provide for them, and save him from poverty.

Works Consulted
Fargnoli, A. Nicholas., and Michael Patrick. Gillespie. ""Two Gallants"" James Joyce A to Z: the Essential Reference to the Life and Work. New York:
Facts on File, 1995. 219-220. Print.
Pierce, David. "Blinds and Railing in 'Araby' and 'Two Gallants'" Reading Joyce. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. 117-127. Print.

[GR]

“The Boarding House”


external image boardinghouseTJC.jpg

Setting
The setting still remains in Dublin, specifically Mrs. Mooney's Boarding House in Hardwicke Street. It is in a brief period between Sunday breakfast and the noon mass at the Pro- Cathedral (Fargnoli 21). Inside the House, many tourists roamed about and the resident population was predominantly made of clerks.

Characters
Mrs. Mooney - the butcher's daughter. The owner and "mother" of "The Boarding House." Mrs. Mooney was separated from her husband and immediately took the role as the head of her household, life, and, eventually, Polly's, her daughter.

Polly - The daughter of Mrs. Mooney. Young and beautiful, Polly always caught the attention of the young men staying in her mother's Boarding House. She was slightly provocative and used her beauty to lure men.

Mr. Doran - A successful clerk. He was the lover of young Polly, although he was in his mid-thirties. Mr. Doran worries about his affair with Polly because he thinks it will affect his business and reputation.

Plot Overview
Mrs. Mooney notices the relationship going on between a resident, Mr. Doran, and her daughter. Mrs. Mooney only gets involved when she realizes that Mr. Doran and her daughter, Polly, must be engaged. She then calls a meeting with Mr. Doran to discuss the matter, along with the intentions he may have. Mr. Doran is nervous about the conversation at hand because he knows that the result could dramatically change his future. He comes to a conclusion that he must marry Polly because of the relationship they already had.

Deadly Sin[s]
Lust seems to play a major role throughout "The Boarding House." Polly uses seduction to attract young men to her, which is how she became involved with Mr. Doran. Throughout Dubliners, Joyce portrays a city young men do not see past the view of sexual relations with the opposite sex. In "The Boarding House," however, we encounter the female predators at work (Pierce 124).

Pride may also be seen. Mr. Doran is a well-known businessman and thinks high of himself because of his reputation. He thinks of this when the conversation about marrying Mrs. Mooney's daughter comes about. He believes marrying Polly will ruin all that he's worked for. This emotion is expressed stating, "All his long years of service gone for nothing! All his industry and diligence thrown away!" (63).

Virtue[s]
Charity, though not an obvious symbol, appears to be the virtue in this story. Charity is usually seen as giving to the poor but, in this case, it is more or less contribution to the community. Mrs. Mooney opens the Boarding House for travelers while. Hope can also be seen here because of the plan of marriage between Polly and Mr. Doran. Mrs. Mooney knows that it has to happen but hopes that it will work for the best.

Major Motifs
Betrayal is one thing that causes conflict with more than one character and is revealed throughout "The Boarding House." As previously stated, Mrs. Mooney pushes Mr. Doran into marrying her daughter.

Symbols
Although Joyce despised the Catholic religion, many references to it still appears. In this story, the image of the Eucharist appears. After breakfast, Mrs. Mooney made Mary, her servant, to clean up and collect the broken bread pieces for a bread pudding. In the Last Supper, Jesus broke the bread and dispersed it to his disciples.

Another symbol is that of new beginnings. After Mrs. Mooney becomes seperated from her husband, she opens up her own business and takes on the role of the mother and father to her children. Eventually, after arranging a marriage between her daughter and one of the residents in the house, the couple will face new beginnings together, as they join together in holy matrimony.

Analysis
In "The Boarding House," the idea of marriage was promising but, at the same time, a setup because there is a possibility of losing reputation. This arrangement starts as a simple issue and turned into an affair of obligation. The affair was more about public perception than the feelings of the two involved. Mrs. Mooney is a single mother who has been through a hard marriage and, seeing her daughter in the predicament she is in, attempts to protect her by arranging a marriage that she thinks would be fit. She convinces Polly to leave her job and stay home, exposing her to young men, which leads to the desire for attention. This is how she met Mr. Doran in the first place. "The story's event reflect in miniature the broader tensions of Irish life. The recurring conflict of the story stands out not as a moral choice but rather as the question of choice itself" (Fargnoli 21). Mr. Doran worries about the limitations he would face in the marriage but fears, even more, the word of the public. In the end, he agrees to the marriage, despite the thoughts of reputation in the back of his mind.

Connections w/ other Stories
"After the Race" can connect with "The Boarding House." In the beginning of the story, Mrs. Mooney is described as the butcher's daughter. In "After the Race," Jimmy was also a child of a butcher. The butcher is, most likely the same man in both stories. Although this may be true, the father of Jimmy opened a shop in Kingston and made a lot of money, whereas there is no description of Mrs. Mooney's father .

The Word
The word that connects the whole story is reverie or, as written in the story, revery. "She rested the nape of her neck against the cool iron bed-rail and fell into a revery" (66). Polly was overwhelmed by the situation at hand and how her brother was reacting to it. She tried to escape reality for the moment but, when she was called down by her mother, she remembered why she wanted to escape in the first place.

Works Consulted
Fargnoli, A. Nicholas., and Michael Patrick. Gillespie. ""The Boarding House"" James Joyce A to Z: the Essential Reference to the Life and Work. New York: Facts on File, 1995. 21. Print.
Pierce, David. "Blinds and Railing in 'Araby' and 'Two Gallants'" Reading Joyce. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. 111-124. Print.
Peterson, Richard F. "The Simplest Verbal Vesture: Lyrics and Epiphanies" James Joyce Revisited. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992. 29-32. Print.

[JH]


“A Little Cloud”


Setting
"A Little Cloud" being the eighth story of Dubliners takes place in Dublin as well as the rest of the stories. Although Dublin is the setting of this story you can also see different locations throughout the story such as the King‘s Inns (in which he sat at his desk reminiscing on his old friend Gallaher whom he had not seen for eight years); Henrietta Street, Capel Street, and Grattan Bridge (the two streets and the bridge are the streets and bridge that Little Chandler walked through to get to the London express to wait for his friend whom he have been waiting for, also as Little Chandler walks through the Grattan Bridge he saw the houses and river banks and their different qualities and he wondered if he could write a poem to express that idea).

Characters
Little Chandler – he is small, fragile, and had very small hands. These physical attributes reflect his name. His name also reflects his inclination to put down his poetic desires that proposes that he lives quietly and has no passion. In “Little Cloud” he is seen as an unhappy and very demanding person. He is excited for his old friend arrival and is anxious to meet with him after eight years. After he hears of his friend’s exciting life he dislikes his life and goes against his domestic life.

Gallaher – He is Little Chandler’s old friend who comes for a visit at Dublin. He can be seen as a role model for Little Chandler because he desires to be successful, have a writing career, and have foreign travel all that Gallaher is. He has good manners and straight - forth behavior.

Plot Overview
Little Chandler reunites on an evening after he got out of work from King’s Inn, with his old friend Gallaher. Chandler wants and looks forward to have a career in poetry to be a well recognized poet. So with this in mind he really looks forward to speak with his old friend whom is a good writer. After he hears from Gallaher that he has a writing career in London, he gets very envious because of this. After this he envies his best friend and is determined to change his life to be better then him. So he imagines his life with out his wife and son, in order to accomplish his goals. He is looking forward to freedom form his family but later in the story he feels ashamed of what he had been thinking and accepts that he is wrong.

Deadly Sin[s]
In the story “A Little Cloud” there is only one major deadly sin that deadly sin being Envy. This sin is present at the moment Little Chandler hears his friends experiences in London and compares them that of his life and dislikes his life because his friends life is better. He envies that his friend left Dublin and went to London where he has a career in writing and is a great journalist. He wants would be willing to leave his family to be better than his friend. He thought that if he would do the same thing that Gallaher he would be in the same position as he is. He envies this therefore it is a sin because he does not see what he has accomplished and the family he has. Although this sin is present in “A Little Cloud” Little Chandler finally recognizes that he is wrong and that leaving his family was a foolish thought to think of.
external image seven-deadly-sins-envy.jpg

Virtue[s]
Through out “A Little Cloud” there is a possible virtue that can be seen. It is not a major virtue but it can suffice to understand that although Little Chandler did envy his friend he also had hope. Hope can be seen through Chandlers hope to have a better life that of his friend Gallaher. He hopes that he could look for freedom and find freedom in London although he never reaches that point.

Major Motifs
As you begin reading the story “ A Little Cloud’ you do not encounter with any major motifs, but as you read further you encounter with two main major motifs such as an epiphany and the desire to escape. In the middle of the story when Little Chandler finishes his talk with Gallaher and the epiphany is present that being frustration and regret. According to Gillepsie, Chandler is frustrated with the thought that he is not the poet he wished he was. He regrets not going along with Gallaher and not having the opportunities that Gallaher had. There was also a point in which he regretted having a family which then leads to the desire to escape. He wants to escape to find freedom and new opportunities to London and be the great poet he has been looking forward to being (136).
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Symbols
Strangely there are no symbols present in this story other than those similar to all the rest of the stories. Those symbols being that in all of the stories there is no sunlight streams or any happy landscapes that illuminate these stories. Instead of those happy sunlight streams each story has grey and black colors that represent the different sins and the mood of each story.
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Analysis
“A Little Cloud” shows the frustration that Chandler feels that he should change his life and look forward his dream of becoming a writing career. He also thinks that in order to be successful in life you must leave his home town Dublin like his friend Gallaher did. According to Gillespie, Chandler after hearing Gallaher he just closes from everything and wants to think that his life and family are shallow and that he can do better. He always is thinking that he could have done as well as Gallaher in that way he is hiding away from the truth. Through out the story Little Chandler does not write not even once and he has a shelf of poetry but does not dare even touch them not read them to his wife so in a way he is contraindicating his reasoning of him being a good poet. While dreaming of a poetic career he thought of the possibility escaping, the demands of work and home that serve as obstacles to his dreams ultimately overwhelm him. At the end of the story you see that he decides not to leave and decides to stay with his family, so he ends up were the story began with Little Chandler sighing about his unrealized aspirations, but submitting to the melancholy thought (137).

Connections w/ other Stories
“A Little Cloud” does not have many connections with other stories in Dubliners. The only connections that could be seen are in the motifs. The connections are that in “The Dead,” “An Encounter,” “Two Gallants,” “Araby,” “A Boarding House,” “A Painful Case,” and “Eveline,” all conclude with epiphanies that are tinged with frustration, sadness, and regret. Another connection would be the desire to escape although they all have different reasoning for that desire which is seen in “A Boarding House,” “Two Gallants,” and in “An Encounter.”

The Word
Although each story should have a word that represents he story this story does not really emphasize a word that clarifies the meaning of “A Little Cloud.” Therefore you have to look closely in this story because there is not a specific word; the word that might be seen and might have a symbolism that reflects the story’s meaning would be Gray. The word symbolizes the color which also represents what Little Chandler is feeling. He is feeling frustration and trapped in his life that he sees as shallow.

Works Consulted
Fargnoli, A. Nicholas., and Michael Patrick. Gillespie. "A Little Cloud" James Joyce A to Z: the Essential Reference to the Life and Work. New York:
Facts on File, 1995. 136-137. Print.

[MM]


“Counterparts”

Setting
Dublin is the setting of "Counterparts", however, many places within Dublin are identified. A law firm where the protagonist works, two pubs (Davy Byrne and the Scotch House), and Shelbourne Road where the protagonist lives.
Characters
Mr Alleyne – Serve's as Farrington’s boss at the law firm. He is characterized by is verbally abusive manner, when communicating with Farrington.
Farrington – He is a copyist at a law firm, who is frustrated in his work. He also serves as the protagonist of “Counterparts”. Farrington is so frustrated in his work that he takes to drinking as a form of relief (Ryf 68).
Miss Delacour – a client of Mr. Alleyne, who witnesses the verbal abuse of Mr. Alleyne dishes to Farrington. Mr. Alleyne seems to have a liking for her.
O’Halloran, Paddy Leonard, and Nosey Flynn - drinking buddy who travels to the bars with Farrington.
Weathers - an acrobat Farrington meets at the Scotch House when, Leonard introduces them to one another. Very athletically built and has no problem proving this based on his pretentious display of his muscles.
Tom - Tom is the obedient son of Farrington. Serves as Farrington’s target for anger release after a long day of frustration.
Plot Overview
"Counterparts" details a day in the life of Farrington, who is a copyist at a legal office. After being humiliated by his boss continuously, he lets slip a sly remark which he takes to repeating at the pubs. Passing from one establishment to the next, he and his friends drink their money away. In the end, Farrington comes home and abuses his son in order to relieve the anger from his life.
Deadly Sin[s
In "Counterparts", three deadly sins go hand-in-hand: wrath, gluttony, and sloth. Annoyances in Farrington’s life bring about a rage in him that pushes him to drink, only exacerbating his problems. Throughout the workday he finds it hard to concentrate and instead slacks off to visit a pub. "Buffeted by a day of defeats, he pawns his watch and seeks his habitual alcoholic solace, reliving his one triumph of the day" (Ryf, 68). After letting his wrath show in his sudden jibe at Mr. Alleyne, his gluttonous behavior is seen when he visits the pubs and drinks himself into a state of poverty.
Virtue[s]
Though there is much loss of hope and lack of love in "Counterparts", one virtue does eventually show itself: faith. Tom, when Farrington returns home, does not hesitate in following his father's orders. The church, hitherto absent in the story, is brought in when Tom informs him that Ada has gone to the chapel, a fact which Farrington immediately finds displeasure in. Though, Tom does all that is asked of him, Farrington finds an excuse to let his anger pour out. And yet, even then, Tom displays his faithfulness when he wishes to say the Hail Mary for his father, even when being ill-treated.
Major Motifs
The major motif seen here continues to be the chalice. We see the recurrence of Fr. Flynn's chipped chalice in Farrington's alcoholic tendencies. Instead of using the wine to heal the spirit, he abuses it and finds himself more troubled than before. It serves as Farrington's only refuge, it can be considered his Mass. Just as Fr. Flynn continued with his strangling duties, Farrington loyally persists in his drinking, an attitude to be shared by Mr. Kernan in "Grace".
Symbols
Mr. Alleyne, with his "North of Ireland accent", symbolizes the British dominance of the country, not always felt, but ever present in such cases as employment. Throughout the story, Farrington seems defeated by the British. Disappointed by the indifference of the lady with the "London accent", and being beaten in arm wrestling by the British man, Mr. Weathers.
Analysis
In "Counterparts" we see Joyce's "scrupulous meanness" in full swing. The circumstances of Farrington's life embody the very worst of Dublin: constricting workplace, drinking problems and unhealthy family life, with very little hope for improvement.
Connections w/ other Stories
"Counterparts" can connect with "Grace". Tom, Farrington's faithful son, is thought of when reading "Grace". Farrington's son is similar to Tom Kernan, a man whose drinking habits lead to a horrible accident. Living is the detrimental household of Farrington, he has picked up drinking just as his father. This vicious dogma, continues as we see the cycle move towards offspring.
"Counterparts" can connect with "A Mother". Farrington is similar to Mrs. Kearney because both provoke their own victimization and victimize their own tormentor (Brandabur 107). Ms. Kearney brings on her own victimization when she plays the nice role, but then victimizes her tormentor when Kathleen does not receive her money. Similarly, Farrington brings on his own victimization when he does not complete his task at work but then victimizes his tormentor slightly different. He takes his displaced anger out on Tom.
The Word
As with "The Sisters" we continue to see paralysis that is inherited in “Counterparts”. The paralysis that results from alcoholism and detrimental behavior plays a major part in this story. Joyce has found a way to undo the constricting bands of the church. If the church cannot simply be done away with, then it must be beaten out. As Farrington strikes blows at Tom, the attempt to do away with the church is clearly seen. The word "tincture" characterizes the entirety of "Counterparts". A tincture is a medicine made by dissolving a drug in alcohol, and as the reader can hardly fail to notice, Farrington's life itself is likewise engulfed. A tincture of a man, his work habits have largely dissipated in the wake of his constant thirst. The word can also mean the colors used in a coat of arms and, as it appears in the text, offers yet another interpretation: "Weathers made them all have just one little tincture at his expense and promised to meet them later on…" Mr. Weathers is British, and his offer of a "tincture" can be seen as a jibe at Irish culture, so great is their alcoholism that it is the recognized national symbol.
Works Consulted
Ryf, Robert. A New Approach to Joyce. Oakland: U of California P, 1962. Print.
Brandabur, Edward. A Scrupulous Meanness. Chicago: U of Illinois P, 1971. Print.
[EWR]






“Clay”



Setting
As is true with all the stories in Dubliners, Dublin is the setting. The specific places mentioned in “Clay” are the Dublin by Lamplight laundry in which the main protagonist works, Downes’s cakeshop, and the house of the protagonist’s “son”. The story itself takes place in fall, specifically Hallow Eve.

Characters
Maria - The main protagonist in “Clay”. Although a small woman, she is very neat and tidy and is, as stated by another character, a veritable peacemaker. Everyone was so fond of Maria.
Ginger Mooney - owner of the laundry that Maria works at; she calls Maria a peacemaker and says she would not be the same without her. Elizabeth Fleming - fellow employee at the laundry that Maria works at; she, on many occasions told Maria that she would definitely get married.
Joe - The son of Maria, although not in the biological sense. In “Clay” he is often described as a drunkard and apparently is not very fond of his brother.
Mrs. Donnelly - The wife of Joe. She tries to keep the peace in the family, and tells Joe that it is shameful to talk disrespectfully about his brother.
Alphy - The brother of Joe. Although he is not depicted in "Clay", Alphy is mentioned by Joe as no brother of his.
Plot Overview
“Clay" begins with Maria finishing the cleaning of the kitchen at the laundry. As mentioned by the cook, Maria had done such a great job that you could see yourself in the big copper boilers. After Maria finishes her work she goes on to take care of her other business, with special care to take put on her brown raincoat. Maria is going to have dinner with Joe and his family, so being the kind person she is, Maria goes to Downes’s cakeshop and purchases a dozen mixed cakes and a plumcake. She then proceeds to take a tram to Joe’s home and along the way misplaces her newly purchased plumcake. After some drinking insisted on by Joe, Maria participates in a game during which she is blindfolded and must touch an object placed in a dish. At first she touches clay, which causes the swiftly removal of the clay. The second time Maria touches the prayerbook and Mrs. Donnelly comments that Maria will enter convent before the year is out. The story ends with Maria singing I Dreamt that I Dwelt, and although she makes a mistake, Joe is overcome with emotion and cries, so much so that he cannot find the corkscrew he was looking for.

Deadly Sin[s]
Maria does not really show any deadly sins and is one of the main characters who does not have a deadly sin. Joe however does exhibit gluttony, being a drunkard, as depicted later in the story when he is seen either drinking opening a drink and in the process of opening a drink, when looking for the corkscrew with tears in his eyes at the end of the story. Joe also exhibits a certain anger when Maria mentions Alphy upon first arriving at Joe’s house, which Mrs. Donnelly swiftly attempts to calm.

Virtue[s]
Throughout the story wherever Maria goes love follows. Everyone is fond of her. She makes peace when the laundresses quarrel, she keeps Ginger from using violence against the dummy in charge of the iron, and she even keeps her family from arguing when the nutcracker can not be found, by saying she doe not like nuts and that they should not worry about her. Near the end of the story when Maria is blindfolded and touches the clay during the game, clay symbolizing death, she is given hope in the prayerbook she touches the second time. According to Mrs. Donnelly Maria would enter into a convent before the end of the year.

Major Motifs
One motif found in "Clay" is the illusion of wholeness, while in reality things are not whole, but broken. This illusion is brought up early on in "Clay" when Maria is done preparing the barmbracks for tea. At first they seem to be whole, uncut, but upon a closer inspection they are in fact cut evenly, as only Maria's nature would allow her to do. Maria is unable to see the realities; she only sees the illusion that every thing is whole and good. It appears as if Maria does not see that things are not good, or at least she attempts to ignore it. She does not want to have a husband, she is very much content with her live of servitude in the laundry. Maria, although she realizes it, does not seem to see how bad Joe being an alcoholic really is. Later in the story Maria also fails to see that, while singing I Dreamt that I Dwelt, she makes a mistake.



Symbols
The clay seen in “Clay” symbolizes death. We were made from clay in the beginning and will return to it in the end. During the Hallow Eve game Maria is not to get the ring, which symbolizes marriage, or the prayerbook, symbolizing life in a convent, death is her fate. Clay was not originally intended to be one of the choices, yet Maria chose it. She was then told to try again and upon her second try she chose not marriage, but the prayerbook. She would be saved from her inevitable death, no matter how slowly it came, by religion.

Another symbol in “Clay” is the witch that Maria resembles when she laughs. Her nose almost touches her chin when she laughs really hard. She also resembles a witch in simply because of her very small stature. This witch-like appearance is also more strongly elicited by the season specified in “Clay”, Hallow Eve, or more modernly, Halloween.


Analysis
At first glance “Clay” seems to be a story of nothing more than the life of a small woman, a maid, who goes to visit her family. However there a deeper messages that can be seen within “Clay”. The reader can see Maria, throughout the story, as bearing great resemblance to the Virgin Mary. Maria, like Mary was, is a peacemaker, and that fact is stressed throughout “Clay” in her quelling the arguing laundresses, the calming of Ginger Mooney in regards to the dummy in charge of the iron and the quelling of the arguing of Joe and his family when the nutcracker could not be found. Maria, like Mary, has children, however she is a virgin, or at least this is hinted to. Joe thinks of Maria as his “proper mother” even though she did not give birth to him. Maria is neat and tidy, she believes everything has its place and unfortunately although she wants everything to be perfect and nice, all is not perfect and nice. Maria is perhaps so focused in having everything perfect and peaceful that she does not see how dry and plain her life is. More importantly, because of her preoccupation with perfection and peacemaking, her perception that everything is fine when it is not, she is most likely going to die alone, an epiphany Maria does not seem to experience, unlike other characters in Dubliners who do experience these epiphanies.

Connections w/ other Stories
“Clay”, similarly to the first story of Dubliners, “The Sisters”, and a later story, “Grace”, includes the Eucharist. In “Clay”, Maria is in charge of distribution out the hosts, the barmbracks, however the women were already given their wine, in this case hot tea.
“Clay”, like other stories in Dubliners, such as “The Sisters” and “Grace”, shows that there is hope for these sad people. This message of hope, however, is hope found in different things. For the protagonist in “Clay” hope can be found in the convent and more generally, religion.

The Word
The word, or rather, words at work in “Clay” are “neat and tidy”, somewhat ironically because the image of clay would, in most cases, contrast the image of “neat and tidy”. The words represent what Maria wants her world to be. However, this is not possible, for no matter how hard one tries the world will not be completely be neat and tidy. Maria, being a maid, a cleaner of things, a reorganizer of things, feels that life is like her job at the laundry, that it can be cleaned and become neat and tidy. Maria fails to realize how futile her efforts are. Despite the immediate positive results of her cleaning and peacemaking, eventually her cleaning and peacemaking will yet again be needed. This is supported by the statement Ginger makes about her not being the same person if not for Maria or how Maria was always sent for when the women quarreled over the tubs. Maria, being a maid, and most likely being used to the lifestyle of repeatedly cleaning things, may not mind constantly being a peacemaker and cleaner. However, she is trapped and apparently does not notice it.


Works Consulted
Magalaner, M. Joyce The Man the Work the Reputation. New York University, 1956. Print.

[RS]









joyce_deathmask.jpg




“A Painful Case”



All page references are made from this edition of James Joyce Dubliners

Joyce, James. "A Painful Case." Dubliners. New York: Signet Classics, 2007. Print

Setting
Apart from the majority of Dubliners' short stories, "A Painful Case" the protagonist lives in the outskirts of Dublin city. Mr. Duffy the protagonist hates the city of Dubin. But the sins committed by Mr.Duffy, however starts in Dublin city. The story also takes place among concerts, bars, and the home of Mrs. Sinico. A Painful Case starts roughly in autumn months. The story takes place over a course of four years. The story ends with the epiphany of Mr. Duffy on a cold November evening.

painful_case.png

Characters
Mr. Duffy - The protagonist in " A Painful Case". Mr. Duffy is an anal retentive man. Order controls his life and he has no friends and little communication with family. He works at a bank as a cashier. Mr. Duffy is also a very aged man that wears his life on his face.

Mrs.Sinico - Mrs. Sinico is married to the captain. The married Mrs. Sinico seeks to have an affair with Mr. Duffy. She is an intelligent woman that shares many interests with Mr.Duffy. After the companionship was broken off with Mr.Duffy she became a heavy drinker. Her life is short lived in the story.

Captain Sinico - Mrs. Sinico's husband that spent very little time at home. He also is guilty as James Joyce puts it, "dismissed his wife so sincerly from his gallery of pleasures" (110).

Miss Mary Sinico - Mary Sinico is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Sinico. Described by Mr. Duffy as a year younger then himself.Mr.Duffy.jpg


Plot Overview
Mr. Duffy the protagonist is an orderly bank cashier on Baggot Street. Mr. Duffy has lead an adventureless life without friend or communication with his family. He follows the same daily rountines: commute route, restaurants, diet, music, and house order. Mr. Duffy seldomly allows himself an evening out at the opera or a concert. On one of his concert outing at The Rotunda, a conversation is sparked by Mrs. Sinico. The two accidently runs into each twice again before Mr.Duffy and Mrs.Sinico start to plan visits. Upon one of their planned visit an inimate gesture is exchanged by Mrs.Sinico. Mr.Duffy is upset by the gesture and ends the relationship a week later. The news hurt Mrs.Sinico, "she began to tremble so violently that, fearing another collapse on her part, he bade her good-bye"(112). Four years after the aburtly ended friendship Mrs.Sinico has a heart attack in sight of a train. Mrs.Sincino's heavy drinking and distance from her husband becomes evident in the description in the newspaper. Mr.Duffy at first is ashamed of his dealings with such a woman as Mrs.Sinico. He later, after thoughts of their companionship, feels remorseful. He reaches an epiphany, "He felt that he was alone."(118).


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Deadly Sin[s]
In "A Painful Case", the deadly sins lust and pride plays role . Mrs. Sinico lust for Mr.Duffy leads her to her death. Captain Sinico pride blinds him from Mrs.Sinico feelings for Mr.Duffy. Mr.Duffy pride leads to the destruction of his only companion Mrs.Sinico.

Virtue[s]
Like many of the short stories in Dubliners, hope is lost. Mrs.Sinico marriage is hopeless. Her husband is never at home and when he's at home,Mr. Sinico brushes Mrs. Sinico off as an unimportant. The companionship Mr.Duffy and Mrs. Sinico share is also hopeless. The love that Mrs.Sinico supposely finds with Mr.Duffy is quickly recanted by Mr.Duffy in the cakeshop near the Park.


Major Motifs
Mr.Duffy ends where he began, alone. Mr.Duffy loneliness is a consisent motif in the short story. The train is consisently used by Mr.Duffy. The train is apart of Mr.Duffy route, and serve aspermanent ending to his and Mrs.Sinico relationship.



Symbols
The symbols in "A Painful Case" can be seen in objects and matrix synecdoche. The Train in the story represents Mr.Duffy. Simliar to a train Mr.Duffy follows the set path. The train has a set routine. Mr. Duffy's neighborhood Chapelizod is derived from a french word, Chapel d’Iseult. Iseult is half of the famed set of lovers, Tristan and Iseult, whose doomed affair is an iconic love stories. Mr.Duffy house reflect the true nature of his soul. The colors in his house are very plain and few. The walls are bare, disorder of music and books. There is also a vibe of unwelcome joy and happiness in his home. Chapelizod is Mr. Duffy’s neighborhood, which he purposely chose in order to distance himself from Dublin. It is also the route he takes to the city and route he used when he met Mrs.Sinico. Mrs.[Sin]ico name can be decoded to sin. The sins that Mrs.Sinico commits against her marriage. Duffy, is an Irish word that means dark and gloomy. Simliar to Mr.Duffy personality and outlook on life. A phoenix is a mythical bird that is a fire spirit with a colorful plumage. Near the end of the bird lifespan it builds itself a nest of twigs that then ignites. The nest and bird burn fiercely and are reduced to ashes, from which a new, young phoenix arises, reborn anew. Mr.Duffy concludes his epiphany that he is unable to change and became rebirth in Phoenix Park.


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Analysis
Mr.Duffy is a solipsist. His refusal to change, to rebirth, is rooted in his solipsistic behavior. His way of life is the only way of life. "He lived [HIS] spiritual life without communion with others.", Mr.Duffy lived by his own standards (109). When Mr.Duffy starts to see Mrs. Sinico more, he serves as a teacher to her. He imposes his ways upon her, "He lent her books, provided her with ideas, shared his intellectual life with her. She listened to all." (110). Is James Joyce playing with Mr.Duffy as Jesus or God and Mrs.Sinico as a disciple learning the ways. Mr.Duffy even seems to think his is an angelical stature in her eyes. Mr.Duffy has established his own world. He views himself in a higher stature then Mrs.Sinico. She is his student and he is her teacher. Mrs. Sinico, however tries to expose Mr.Duffy to "her life experiences", she has a maternal instinct. She tries to release the senstive side of Mr.Duffy. Mrs. Sinico serves as the "life's feast", Mr.Duffy is outcasted from.[M.M] Her life experiences are human experiences verses Mr.Duffy isolation, that his left him inhuman. The food seen in Mr.Duffy regular life is plain and simple such as Mr.Duffy personality and morals. [M.M] During his time with Mrs.Sinico his ordinary life is interupted. His daily routine of food and work is no longer seen. Mrs.Sinico attempt to bring Mr.Duffy into "life feast" fails. Mr.Duffy rejects the gesture, "every bond, he said, is a bond to sorrow."(112). When the bond is broken, he continues with his old routine, of work and food. In the occasion of Mrs.Sinico' death he is unable to eat his normal dinner. His moral upset is seen through his loss of appettite.[M.M] Mrs. Sinico's death, succeed in revealing his solitude and morals to himself. Mrs.Sinico death causes Mr. Duffy rethinks his life. He has took part in her death. He has condemn her to shame and Although it comes later Mr.Duffy acknowledges his part in Mrs.Sinico's death. Mr. Duffy, unfortunately also realizes that he will not change his life. The once offered "life's feast" is gone and he completely, alone.


Connections w/ other Stories
A Painful Case connects with many other stories in small ways. Mr.Duffy's epiphany in the end, was found in darkness simliar to the boy in "Araby". "Araby" is also connect with James Joyce's word usage "At four o'clock he was set free."(109). Mr. Duffy can also be in "The Sisters" young protagonist boy that rejected the life offered to him by Father Flynn. The life of church, did he abandoned the city he once was apart of. A little inference can be connected by Mr.Duffy meeting Mrs.Sinico and her daughter to "The Boarding House". "Eveline" preference of duty over love can be seen in the choice of Mr.Duffy. "An Encounter" old queer can be conjured through Mr Duffy.



The Word
The word alone is present throughout "A Painful Case". Mr. Duffy loneliness is seen early in the story. The presence of the word is carried through the actions, and thoughts of Mr.Duffy. The word however. does not reach Mr.Duffy until the end. The end of the story as well as the end of possibilities to engage in "life feast". [M.M] "He waited for some minutes listening. He could hear nothing: the night was perfectly silent. He listened again: perfectly silent. He felt that he was alone." (118).



Works Consulted

Magalaner, Marvin. Time of Apprenticeship: The Fiction of Young James Joyce. New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1959. Print.

[NL]



"Ivy Day in the Committee Room"



Setting
The story takes place on a rainy day on Wicklow Street in the committee room. “ Ivy Day in the Committee Room" is also set in Dubliners like the other stories. The story occurs on Ivy Day, which is a celebration for the death anniversary of Charles Stewart Parnell.
(TP)


Characters
Old Jack- the caretaker of headquarters. Mat O’Conner- a young political canvasser. Hynes - a canvasser whom other suspect of working for the rival side. Richard Tierney- a politician running for office in the Royal Exchange Ward and for whom the canvassers are working. Father Keon - a priest and friend of Tierney. Lyons, Crofton, Henchy - all canvassers. Charles Stewart Parnell is dead. He is the one who was an Irish revolutionary and in his honor ivy is worn on the anniversary of his death. (TP)




Plot Overview
"Ivy Day in the Committee Room" takes place on Ivy Day. A group of canvassers such as Henchy, Lyons, Mat, Crofton and other works for a mayoral candidate in the city council election that take place in the committee room. In the Committee Room they discuss politics and death of Charles Stewart Parnell. Ivy Day, which is held on October 6th, honors the death of Stewart Parnell. The canvassers work for Richard Tierney. In the Committee Room O’Conner sits by the fire after canvassing on behalf of Richard Tierney. O’Conner is visited by other canvassers. The story starts out with two people in the room, Old Jack, the caretaker and Mr. O’Connor a canvasser who is taking a break out of the rain. Mr. O’Connor and Old Jack are talking when Hynes, who is not a canvasser. He walks in the committee room and joins in the conversation. It becomes obvious to the other men that Hynes is not a supporter of Tierney for the city council election, but a supporter of Colgan who was in the election on the rival side. Mr. Henchy enters the room soon after and announces that those canvassing for Tierney are not going to be paid as had been promised. The four talk some more until Hynes leaves the room. With Hynes is gone, the others soon begins to gossip about him. Mr. O’Connor defends him. Father Keon later comes in the committee room looking for Mr. Fanning whom Mr. Henchy says is at the Black Eagle. When Father Keon leaves the people start gossiping about him as well, calling him a ‘Black Sheep’. A boy comes in the room a while later to give the men bottles of beer Tierney who had promised them some. After receiving the beer, the men talk more kindly of Tierney, whom they had been criticizing and were angry with for not following through about his word of giving them their pay. Soon after, Crofton, whom Henchy had just been criticizing for being a poor canvasser, walks in with Lyons. The men then start talking about Parnell and King Edward of Britain who is supposed to be visiting Ireland soon. Hynes walks in on their conversation about Parnell and is asked to read the poem he wrote in commemoration of Parnell. The story ends with all who was in presence of hearing the poem praised Hynes for his work.
(TP)


Deadly Sin[s]
Pride is very evident as one of the deadly sins. The goal to achieve votes is something for the men to boast about because with the votes comes the power over the people. For example, in the conversation between Mr. Henchy, Mr. O'Connor, and the old man they showed pride and power in their vote. They argued about the vote from Mr. Grimes who said “I won't tell anyone what way I'm going to vote.” This comment riled up the men because with that vote one of these men could come into a way of great power in their government with the new king coming. These men are prideful in their ways and with the votes people will believe in them and their boastfulness will have good reason and not be for naught.
Tee



Virtue[s]
The virtue that is shown evident is diligence. The men of the committee room are diligent in receiving votes. They want nothing less but to win the overall election for themselves. When they win the election once again their pride will be boosted and their dreams of power will become true. Some of these men are so diligent that they will even go for votes in the rain and those men were Mr. Lyons and Mr. Crofton. Their diligence will not stop until the campaign is over and the winner is shown with his jewels of success, which in this case is the seat in the government.

Tee



Major Motifs
Gossip appears a lot in Ivy Day. As soon as work is finished in the committee room and characters depart, at least one character will talk bad upon another behind their back. Some suspect that Joe Hynes is spying for the rival candidate in the election. This assumption causes a lot of gossip amongst the other canvassers and characters in the committee room.
(TP)


Symbols
The committee room symbolizes conversation. Every time they are in the committee room there is conversation going on about something. The men come together to speak about serious topics such as politics and the ways you raise children. The committee room is a place free of women and a way that the men can speak as men and converse about the things that affect them right then and there. Tee




Analysis
“Ivy Day in the Committee Room” mourns the state of Irish politics and people’s inability to maintain consistent beliefs. The group of men gathering in the once-active and promising room of the National Party, which used to be Parnell’s headquarters, shows little enthusiasm for the candidate they apparently support, but instead bicker about trivial things. The story highlights that on this special day, these men remain inactive. Ivy Day honors Parnell’s death and takes its name from the loyal Dubliners who, at Parnell’s funeral, wore the ivy growing by his grave in their lapels. The men in the committee room, the story suggests, are paralyzed in a cycle of inactivity and equivocation. “Ivy Day in the Committee Room” realizes at this moment that they are not the ones to lead the charge. Instead, they will sit year after year, impotently wearing their ivy. The story mourns the death of Parnell, but it also mourns the death of firm political opinion in general.

Tee




Connections w/ other Stories
" Ivy Day in the Committee Room"is linked with the story "Two Gallants" because they both share the common theme of betrayal. In" Ivy Day in the Committee Room" Father Keon has a relation with the themes of loyalty and betrayal through out the story. Also there are many references to fire. Fire is also seen in ” The Sisters” which the fireplace was empty. The theme of corruption and death is also seen in the first story and appears in Ivy Day. Ivy Day centers on death because the celebration of Ivy Day is the anniversary of the death of Charles Parnell. “ The Sisters” story opens with death. In other stories, including “Eveline,” “and “The Dead,” memories of the dead haunt the living and color every action. In “Ivy Day,” for example, Parnell hovers in the political talk. Concerns about betrayal is the topic for the conversations in “Ivy Day in the Committee Room,” Parnell supporters saw his demise as the result of pro-British treachery. Until Parnell’s affair was exposed, Parnell had been a popular and politician that the Irish people admired, and many Irish believe the British were responsible for his downfall. All of the men in “Ivy Day” show beliefs that suggest betrayal in Ireland’s political present. In “The Dead,” Gabriel feels betrayed by his wife’s feelings for her former lover.
(TP)


The Word
In James Joyce’s Dubliners - A Critical Handbook, there are several details in “Ivy Day in the Committee Room” which can be seen as a connection with religion and stories out of the Bible. The betrayal of Parnell is similar to the crucifixion of Christ, because of the glorifying of Parnell from his people. The religious imagery that is obvious is the lighting of the candle, the fact that the men are gathered in an upper room, as the disciples were at the last supper; the action of drinking together, as the disciples shared wine at the last, and the men in the committee room shared beer with each other and also the wearing of the Ivy leaves as symbols of support for Parnell, much like the disciples in the New Testament used the fish as a sign that they were followers of Christ. These images and the sign of betrayal in the story serve as a comparison between Parnell, ‘the uncrowned king,’ and Jesus Christ. The differences between this story and the New Testament story as suggested in James Joyce’s Dubliners - A Critical Handbook, show how one is hopeful while the other ends in despair. As opposed to Christ, Parnell may live in his people heart, but never return. (TP)


external image jesus-giving-the-wine2.jpg
Works Consulted
Baker, James R., and Thomas F. Staley, Eds. James Joyce's Dubliners: A Critical Handbook. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1969. (TP)





“A Mother”

Setting

Like with every story the setting is Dublin, Ireland. But specifically it is placed in the Ancient Concert Room. The main characters all are placed in this specific building during the Irish Revival. The Irish Revival is a movement during the 19th Century made to promote the Irish heritage through art such as literature, antiques, painting music, and etc.


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Characters

Mr Holohan- Born with a game leg he is the secretary Eire Abu Society. His friends call him Happy Holohan.
Mrs Kearney- The once well respected woman who stands for nothing, and the mother of Kathleen. Mrs Kearney is the woman who controls everything or so she thinks.
Kathleen- Mr and Mrs Kearney daughter. She is very well liked throughout her community as being clever in music, a nice girl, and a believer in the language movement. Like her mother she was taught French and music at a good convent.
Mr Fitzpatrick- The man who set up the concerts in the Ancient Concert Room and stood his ground to Mrs Kearney instead of reluctantly obeying her like everyone else.

Plot Overview

Mr Holohan and Mrs Kearney host a talent show in the Ancient Concert Room for four days, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, in an effort to get Mrs Kearny daughter, Kathleen, recognized for her talents and paid 8 guineas. But when the shows did not go ass planned the contract was thought to be breeched. Mrs Kearney was furious when her daughter was not paid in full on the last performance day and for that she put all of her lady-like exterior and showed her true colors. Mrs Kearney took her daughter out of the show and then understood that she lost the battle but not the war.

Deadly Sin[s]

Here lies the problem of pride. Pride was prevalent throughout the story from Mrs Kearney unwilling to put aside that idea that she can be wrong and that her daughter talent probably does not deserve eight guineas. Mrs Kearey prideful nature showed that her daughter actually performing was not as important as eight guineas. She wanted to prove that she was right instead of lettingher daughter perform.

Virtue[s]

Although Mrs Kearney was prideful she also possessed determination and a caring mother. She was not going to let anyone stand in her way of her daughter receiving the money for the verbal contract set by Mr Holohan and the committee. Mrs Kearney is a woman who knows what she wants and go gets it no matter who is over her or how she is going to obtain it. She loved her daughter and when she felt that her daughter was being mistreated she stop at nothing to get her daughter her money.

Major Motifs

There is no major motif or theme within this story. But throughout the story every major character wants to gain control over one another.

Symbols

The symbolism within this story is the eight guineas bringing power and respect. For Mrs Kearney, had she recieved the money she would have power over the committee and Mr Fitzpatrick by proving that the verbal contract made between her and Mr Holohan was valid concerning her daughter. For Mr Fitzpatrick he gains control over Mrs Kearney by not giving her daughter the money she thought she desserved. The eight guineas also gave respect to Mr Fitzpatrick by te minor characters conversating about how he handle Mrs Kearney and the money situation very well.

Analysis

For the story "Mother", this is one of the two that actually has a mother in it and not a guardian such as an aunt or uncle. This story reveals how a mother is important to making sure things go as planned. Mrs Kearney is a woman who let the society shut her true thoughts until she was fed up and refused to let Mr Fitzpatrick, a man rule over.

Connections w/ other stories

Compared to all other stories within in Dubliners, only “The Boarding House” and “Mother” , are the only two stories where there is a mother and father present instead of an aunt or uncle being the guardian over the young people in the story. The “Counterparts”, is similar to “Mother” because both Farrington and Mrs Kearney put themselves in a victimizing situation and then keep the anger bottled up and explode on someone within the stories. For Farrington he took his frustration out on his children while Mrs Kearney blew up and snapped on Mr Holohan and Fitzpatrick.

The Word

The words here are eight guineas. This simple phrase brought anger, a loss companion, and lowered respect towards the main character. For all three characters, Mrs Kearney, Mr Fitzpatrick, and Mr Holohan, their incident behind the performance stage brought separation within the story. For the relationship between Mrs Kearney and Mr Holohan their business relationship deteriorated and for all three characters they lost respect towards each other or more so respect lost towards Mrs Kearney from Mr Fitzpatrick and Mr Holohan, due to how Mrs Kearney handle the eight guineas situation.
Works Consulted
Brandabur, Edward. A Scrupulous Meanness. Chicago: U of Illinois P, 1971. Print.
[RE]

“Grace”

Setting
The setting of "Grace" remains in Dublin, Ireland. Throughout the chapter, there are other places and streets named: Grafton Street (outside of the pub) and Westmoreland Street (passing by on the way to Tom's home).
Characters

Tom Kernan - The out of luck businessman in "Grace" who had an incident and tries to reform his life by going to church.

Mrs. Kernan - Tom Kernan's wife


Jack Power - Kernan’s friend in “Grace.” Power rescues Kernan after his accident and suggests the Catholic retreat. Mr. Power’s dedication to Kernan appears shallow despite his efforts to reform the man, as he is acutely aware of Kernan’s dwindling social status in comparison to his own burgeoning career.

Martin Cunningham - A sensible, influential and intelligent man who everyone had respect for.

Plot Overview

After being embarrassed by taking a drunken fall in a bathroom of a bar with his tongue bitten off, Tom Kernan is convinced by friends to attend a Catholic retreat; if Tom's friends did not help him, Tom would have been in trouble with the constable (higher authority). His friends are hoping that the retreat will help Tom and his alcoholism.
Deadly Sin[s]

The deadly sin that I think was in "Grace" was greed. Tom Kernan had greed for alcohol which made him fall in the first place.
Virtue[s]

The virtue I notice in "Grace" is charity. I say this because Mr Power and Mr Cunningham wanted to help Tom with his drinking problem. If they did not care about Tom--who was their friend, they would not have spent their time trying to convince Tom to attend church.
Major Motifs
Joyce uses a motif of debt throughout "Grace". It is mentioned several times by Mr. Power. Joyce then turns from debt to religion.

Symbols

The title "Grace", refers to many things in the story. The most obvious is when the friends of Mr. Kernan gets him to go to church (this is where the role of religion come into play).
Analysis
In "Grace", a man falls down and becomes unconscious. Two men and a pub employee helps him upstairs while the bar manager calls the police. When the police arrived, they are of little help and a citizen brings the man back to life who says his name is "Tom Kernan". He then leaves with his friend Jack Power who takes him home and tell the news to Tom's wife. In the final paragraphs of "Grace", the word grace has many meanings: 1) refers to politeness 2) a delay or a grace period or 3) the grace that God gives humans that helps them become saved.

Connections w/ other Stories
"Grace" connects to the first story--"The Sisters". The narrator of "The Sisters" had contemplated the untidy hooking of the old woman's skirt and the heels of her cloth boots down to one side. The epiphany, we remember, took place at prayer (Kenner 62).

The Word
The word that is shown in "Grace" is calling. Like priests or ministers, they receive a calling by God to spread his word. In the story, it is the friends' calling to help poor and confused Tom.

Analysis
In "Grace", a man falls down and becomes unconscious. Two men and a pub employee helps him upstairs while the bar manager calls the police. When the police arrived, they are of little help and a citizen brings the man back to life who says his name is "Tom Kernan". He then leaves with his friend Jack Power who takes him home and tell the news to Tom's wife. In the final paragraphs of "Grace", the word grace has many meanings: 1) refers to politeness 2) a delay or a grace period or 3) the grace that God gives humans that helps them become saved.

Connections w/ other Stories
"Grace" connects to the first story--"The Sisters". The narrator of "The Sisters" had contemplated the untidy hooking of the old woman's skirt and the heels of her cloth boots down to one side. The epiphany, we remember, took place at prayer (Kenner 62).

The Word
The word that is shown in "Grace" is calling. Like priests or ministers, they receive a calling by God to spread his word. In the story, it is the friends' calling to help poor and confused Tom.

Works Consulted
Kenner, Hugh. Dublin's Joyce: Chapter 5 Dubliners. Bloomington: Indiana UP: 1956. Print.

[BMR]




"The Dead"

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Setting
Needless to say, Dublin is the setting of "The Dead". The story majorily occurs in two different places. Two-thirds of the story takes place in the house of the Morkan sisters on a snowy night during Christmas time, while the rest of the story takes place in Mr. and Mrs. Conroy's room at the Gresham Hotel. [MDR]

Characters
Gabriel Conroy - The university educated protagonist of "The Dead". Mr. Conroy encounters several mishaps during the story that shows his true colors. Gabriel is a man who is highly educated, socially akward, and romantically troubled.

Gretta Conroy - The wife of Gabriel Conroy; Gretta plays a small part in the story, until the conclusion when she reveals to Gabriel that she mourns the death of her past young lover.

Julia Morkan - One of the aunts of Gabriel who throws an annual dance party. Julia Morkan, the leader of a choir, plays a minor role in the story.

Kate Morkan - Another aunt of Gabriel who throws an annual dance party. Kate Morkan, now a music teacher, plays a minor role in the story as well.

Molly Ivors - Although Miss Ivors plays a small role in the story, she alters the tone midway through. Molly Ivors accuses Gabriel Conroy of being a West Briton because he writes weekly in the Daily Express. Molly Ivors's questioning makes Gabriel feel out of place for the rest of the party after their conversation.

Michael Furey - The character in "The Dead", who never actually appears, but has a major impact on the story itself. The seventeen-year-old boy from Galaway died for Gretta years ago. [MDR]

Plot Overview
When Mr Conroy attends his aunts's party, he encounters several uncomfortable situations. Gabriel performs the masculine task of carving the goose, and then delivers a sentimental speech. After the party, Mr and Mrs Conroy returned to their hotel room, Gretta tells Gabriel why she acted so mournfully during the party. Gretta was reminded of a young lover by a song that was played at the party. Gabriel becomes disturbed by the newly learned information then decides to reside in a nearby window. [MDR]

Deadly Sin[s]
At first, the salient deadly sin seems to be lust, as shown by Gabriel's sudden impulses towards his wife the morning after the party. But this can also be viewed as an extension of a more subtle sin recurring throughout the rest of the story: pride. Thinking himself a learned, cultured man with "superior education," he is gradually stripped of his egoism by way of his encounters with Lily, Molly Ivors and finally Gretta. Falling into lust as a last effort to assert his hierarchical supremacy, he ultimately finds himself debased to a bleak equality. [EV]

Virtue[s]
Though this virtue may play a small role, charity adds to the mood of the story. Charity is present several times throughout the story. Gabriel Conroy is a character who demonstrates this virtue continuously. Soon after Gabriel arrived at the Morkans' home, Gabriel offers Lily a tip. Although she is reluctant to accept the tip, Gabriel refuses to withdraw the gift. Later in the story Gabriel Conroy gives another tip, this time to the cab driver. "Gabriel jumped out and, in spite of Mr Bartell D'Arcy's protest, paid the driver. He gave the man a shilling over his fare" (226). These charities are given in spite of protest, showing the protagonist's good nature. [MDR]


Major Motifs
"The Dead" has a motif that is also obvious in other stories throughout Dubliners: windows. The windows within "The Dead" were inhabited by two seperate characters, Mr. and Mrs. Conroy. The window first came into play after Gabriel's conversation with Molly Ivors. The window seems to become obvious when a character is in a state of discomfort. "Gabriel's warm trembling fingers tapped the cold pane of the window" (201). The window appears the second time in their hotel room when Gretta is preparing herself to tell her husband of her deceased young lover. external image 102672820_4f82e03eed.jpg
The final instance of a window was yet again in the hotel room of the Conroys. However, this time it was after Gretta told Gabriel of her young lover. "Gabriel held her hand for a moment longer, irresolutely, and then, shy of intruding on her grief, let it fall gently and walked quietly to the window" (234). While Gabriel was sitting near the window, he contemplated the story Gretta had told him. Throughout "The Dead" the window appears to be a coping mechanism for the characters. The characters retreat to the window in their times of distress. [MDR]

Symbols
Water, also seen here as snow, symbolizes both life and death. Gabriel's insistence upon Gretta wearing galoshes, coupled with other stringencies placed upon his children, reveal his aversion to nature—his unwillingness to partake in what he sees as an inferior life, and his wish to avoid cognizance of death. In the end, he comes to terms with the rest of the world, conceding with the newspaper's description of the snow as "general all over Ireland," an existence shared equally and inevitably by all—not merely in the stagnation that is Joyce's Dublin.

Also, there is much use of the number three, eliciting the image of the Holy Trinity: there are three mentioned instances of Gabriel's generosity (tipping Lily, overpaying the cab fare, and lending to Freddy Malins), Lily pronounces Gabriel's surname with three syllables, Gabriel calls Mary Jane and his aunts the Three Graces (a Greek mythological reference, thus alluding to a divine quality, with Aunt Julia as the Holy Spirit: she is noted for her singing, a connection from voice to breath/wind), and Trinity College itself. [EV]

Analysis
"The Dead" centers around the dissolution of Gabriel Conroy's egoism, and leads to a final epiphany which encompasses all the stories that come before. When speaking to Lily, he is disconcerted by her bitter reply and shakes off the feeling by tipping her. Being thoroughly perturbed by Ms. Ivors's cross-examination, he ends up slurring her in his mind, as "the girl or woman, or whatever she was." And then, when he has been nearly overcome with lust, he is further spurned by his wife's recollection of Michael Furey. But in the end he has lost his ability to delude himself into any feeling of superiority. The idea of Furey's love for Gretta has belittled him too far for him to merely shrug off as he has done before, and he must at last face the enduring effects of the dead upon the living and the sobering union between the two. [EV]

Connections w/ other Stories
Similar to the young boy(s) of the first three stories, Gabriel's parents are deceased, their place taken by his two aunts, Julia and Kate. The connection is emphasized when he says that "He saw himself…acting as a pennyboy for his aunts…" while listening to Gretta's tale; near the end, his condition is synonymous with the boys of the first stories—facing the effects of a death he did not witness ("The Sisters"), filled with generous tears and seeing his own vanity ("Araby"). [EV]

The Word
In "The Dead", the word goes largely unsaid throughout most of the story, but once it is mentioned it evokes and seems to satirize the whole. Upon reading Gretta praise Gabriel as "generous" for lending a pound to Freddy Malins, we are reminded of similar instances—when Gabriel tips Lily, and when he insists on paying the cab driver "a shilling over his fare." While it seems he is merely given to spreading good fortune, one can also see this as a way of deprecation (which Joyce points out in the case of Lily). By putting forth a little more than is necessary, Gabriel builds up his sense of self-importance; he attempts to put others below him by the capability and obduracy of his generosity.

In the end, however, the tables are turned as "generous tears" fill Gabriel's eyes. Soon the word is shifted as he begins to see the snowfall as "general all over Ireland". His own generosity pales in comparison to the love shown by Michael Furey, and even Furey's sentiments fall short of the ideal Gabriel had esteemed for himself. Through vain generosity, the living and the dead aspire to be above, yet finally transpire as, the same general reality. [EV]

Works Consulted
Riquelme, John P. "Joyce's 'The Dead': The Dissolution of the Self and the Police." ReJoycing: New Readings of Dubliners. Ed. Rosa M. Bollettieri Bosinelli and Harold F. Mosher Jr. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1998. 123-41. Print. [EV]